The factors listed in the table below are potential biomarkers for PE. However, in all cases, further studies are needed.
|Characteristics and Functions
|Circulating Levels (blood, serum/plasma) in PE
|Comments on Clinical Significance/Use
|Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)
|A pro-angiogenic factor that creates new blood vessels during embryonic development.
|Increased, decreased, or normal
- Studies tend to be mixed on the levels during PE.
- Recent studies may support elevated levels in PE.
|Placental Growth Factor (PlGF)
|A pro-angiogenic factor that acts as a vasodilator of uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy
- Levels are significantly lower in mild and severe PE.
|Soluble fms-like Tyrosine Kinase 1 Receptor (sFlt-1)
|An anti-angiogenic factor that disables other proteins involved in blood vessel growth
|Soluble Endoglin (sEng)
|An anti-angiogenic factor that modulates growth by binding to TGF-beta.
- Significantly elevated levels in PE.
|The ratio may be useful to assess PE as well as time to delivery.
- Ratio may be higher in PE.
- Higher ratios may also suggest reduced time to deliver.