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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course ABO Typing Discrepancies. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

Learn more about ABO Typing Discrepancies (online CE course)

Agglutination, specifically, hemagglutination, is the clumping together of red blood cells. Insoluble particles (RBC) combine with soluble compounds (antibodies) to form macroscopically/microscopically visible clumps (agglutinins).
When studying agglutination, there are a few terms that should be reviewed and understood:
  • Prozone - excess antibody to the available amount of antigen (no agglutination is a result)
  • Zone of Equivalence - optimal amounts of both antibody and antigen (results in agglutination)
  • Postzone - excess antigen to the available antibody (no agglutination is a result)
The curve in the graph to the right depicts the formation of immune complexes as antibody concentration (y-axis) and antigen availability (x-axis) work in conjunction to form visible agglutination.