"Define Phase" Tools: Quality Function Deployment

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"Define Phase" Tools: Quality Function Deployment

Quality function deployment (QFD) helps the team to focus on the characteristics of a quality process in order to address customer needs. The table below demonstrates how each large-quality component is broken down into smaller sub-components that need to be addressed in order to meet customer expectations.
First levelSecond LevelThird LevelGoal / customer expectation






Accurate Result
Proper phlebotomy technique (Pre-analytical)
Accurate patient identification 100% accuracy
Accurate labeling 100% accuracy
Contamination rate (IV fluid, etc.) <1% contamination


Accurate analytical methodology (Analytical)
Hemolysis check Perform on 100% of samples
Quality assurance: including quality control (QC) and proficiency testing (PT) programsQc: 95% of results within 2SD
100% within 3SD
PT = 100%
Reagent preparation 100% proper reagent handling

Accurate reporting (Post-analytic)
Interface (analyzer to LIS) <1 hr downtime/week
Result interpretation 100% accuracy in manual testing that requires MLS interpretation
Critical result reporting 100% "read back" rate






Timely Result
Reduce the time between delivery of specimen from processing to department (pre-analytical)
Eliminate batching Deliver specimens as they come
Reduce waste walk <10 steps from processing to bench
Phone call reduction <1 call per 5 minutes
Reduce the time between specimen arriving at the department and the time testing completed (analytical)
Reduce analyzer idle time Load samples as they come (no batching)
Analyzer maintenance Downtime <2 hrs per week/analyzer
Reduce the time between testing completion to result being acted upon (post-analytical)
Auto-verify >70% Auto-verification
Automated dilution <1% manual dilution
Reduce repeat analysis <1% repeat testing