Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health concern that has received increased attention in recent decades. It is a leading cause of death globally (Lozano, 2012) and places tremendous financial burdens on the healthcare system, with greater than $10.7 billion in expenditures being attributed to CKD between 2002 and 2011 (Ozieh, 2017). More recent data suggests a cost burden as high as $79 billion in 2016 alone (CDC, 2019).
As part of an effort to improve detection and management of CKD, the National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) proposed the first formalized definition of CKD, as well as providing clinical guidelines for evaluating, classifying, and stratifying the disease (National Kidney Foundation, 2002).
A decade later, the international organization KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes), published revisions to both the definition as well as accompanying guidelines based on the latest evidence (KDIGO, 2013).
This module provides essential background on CKD for the practicing clinical laboratorian. Emphasis is placed on the NKF-KDOQI review and commentary of the KDIGO guidelines (Inker, 2014), with focus on the laboratory testing associated with diagnosis and monitoring of the disease.