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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Antibody Detection and Identification. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

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Conclusion

Red cell antibodies must be properly identified in order to provide compatible blood for transfusion. Many identification techniques are available and policies can vary in different laboratories. It's important to follow your laboratory's Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). The table below summarizes antibody characteristics for most commonly encountered antibodies, including the optimal techniques that were discussed in this course and which antibodies will often exhibit dosage.

Antibody Specificity
Ig Class
Optimal Technique
Often Exhibits Dosage?
Anti- D
Most IgG; Some IgM
37o C; IAT; Enzymes
No
Anti-C
IgG; IgM
37o C; IAT; Enzymes
Yes
Anti-c
Most IgG; Some IgM
37o C; IAT; Enzymes
Yes
Anti-E
IgG; IgM; Many Naturally Occurring
37o C; IAT; Enzymes
Yes
Anti-e
Most IgG; Some IgM
37o C; IAT; Enzymes
Yes
Anti-Cw
IgG; IgM; Often Naturally Occurring
RT; IAT; Enzymes
No
Anti-K
Most IgG; Few IgM
Usually IAT; Few RT
No
Anti-k
Most IgG; Few IgM
IAT
No
Anti-Kpa
IgG
IAT
No
Anti-Jsa
Most IgG; Some IgM
IAT
No
Anti-Fya
Most IgG; Rare IgM
IAT
Yes
Anti-Fyb
Most IgG; Rare IgM
IAT
Yes
Anti-Jka
IgG; IgM; Many IgG + IgM
IAT; Enzymes: PEG
Agglutination often weak and fragile.
Yes
Anti-Jkb
IgG; IgM; Many IgG + IgM
IAT; Enzymes; PEG
Yes
Anti-Lea
Most IgM; Some IgG
RT; 37°C; IAT; Enzymes
No
Anti-Leb
Most IgM; Some IgG
RT; 37°C; IAT; Enzymes
No
Anti-P1
IgM; Rare IgG
RT or below
No
Anti-M
IgG; IgM
4o C and RT; rare IAT
Yes
Anti-N
IgG; IgM
4o C and RT; rare IAT
Yes
Anti-S
IgG; some IgM
RT and IAT
Yes
Anti-s
IgG; IgM
IAT
Yes
Abbreviations: IAT = indirect antiglobulin test; RT = room temperature