Red Cell Disorders: Peripheral Blood Clues to Nonneoplastic Conditions (Online CE Course)

(based on 399 customer ratings)

Authors: C. William Reiquam, MD; Elmer W. Koneman, MD
Reviewer: Laurie Bjerklie, MA, MLS(ASCP)CM

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This collection of informative case studies covers many current topics in red cell disorders. Topics include macrocytosis, intracellular RBC inclusions, echinocytes and acanthocytes, schistocytes, ovalocytes, and rouleaux. Numerous high-quality photomicrographs and real-life situations help ensure learning and retaining needed information.

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Continuing Education Credits

P.A.C.E.® Contact Hours (acceptable for AMT, ASCP, and state recertification): 2 hour(s)
Approved through 5/31/2024
Approved through 5/31/2024


  • Recognize normal and abnormal red blood cell morphologies.
  • State the criteria for performing and reporting peripheral blood smear reviews.
  • Evaluate red blood cell size, shape, and staining characteristics.
  • Correlate observations of key red blood cell abnormalities on peripheral smears with associated clinical conditions.

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(based on 399 customer ratings)

Course Outline

Click on the links below to preview selected pages from this course.
  • Introduction to Red Blood Cell Morphology
    • Normal Red Blood Cell Morphology
    • The Peripheral Smear: Reviewing Red Blood Cell Morphology
      • Introduction to Red Blood Cell Morphology Reporting
      • Table 1: Guidelines for Reporting Red Blood Cell Morphology
  • Abnormal Red Blood Cell Morphology Review
      • Red Cell Morphology Reference Tables
    • Variations in Red Blood Cell Sizes
      • Table 2: MCV Classification
    • Variations in Hemoglobin Content
      • Table 3: Hemoglobin Content (MCHC) Classification
    • Variations in Red Blood Cell Shapes
    • Abnormal Red Blood Cell Distribution
    • Red Blood Cell Inclusions
      • Table 6: Red Blood Cell Inclusions Review
  • Red Blood Cell Nonneoplastic Conditions
    • Hemolytic Conditions with Spherocytosis
      • Case StudyA 12-year-old child presents with jaundice and scleral icterus. The image to the right captures a representative section of the peripheral b...
      • Case Study (continued)Which hematologic condition could be associated with the findings shown in this image?
      • A known case of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is presented in the image on the right. Many different cellular morphologies are pre...
      • A 49-year-old patient with pneumonia was treated with high-dose intravenous penicillin. The patient became jaundiced with yellow sclera. The image on ...
    • Macrocytosis-Associated Conditions
      • A complete blood count (CBC) was ordered for a patient recently admitted to the emergency department. The MCV on the count was 115 femtoliters (fL) (n...
      • A patient has an elevated MCV on the automated CBC and a peripheral blood smear is reviewed. A representative field is shown on the right. What condit...
    • Intracellular RBC Inclusions
      • A 25-year-old asplenic patient with disseminated lymphoma is admitted to the hospital. A CBC is ordered, and a peripheral blood smear is triggered for...
      • A toddler is being treated for lead poisoning. You observe the inclusions indicated by the arrows in many RBCs on the peripheral blood smear. What is ...
      • A 66-year-old patient has been diagnosed with sideroblastic anemia. The inclusions indicated by the arrows in the image were seen in many of the RBCs ...
      • A 10-year-old child came to a physician's attention because of recent jaundice and icteric sclerae after taking the medication Primaquine. Some key re...
    • Red Blood Cell Populations
      • A blood smear represented by the photograph was submitted for hematologic review. Based on the erythrocyte morphology and the accompanying histogram, ...
    • Conditions with Poikilocytosis
      • Hemoglobin E (HbE) and HbE/Beta-Thalassemia
      • A five-month-old child is brought to the pediatrician by the mother who is concerned because the child is not eating well. Upon examination, it is not...
      • A CBC and reticulocyte count are ordered on a 10-year-old African-American child who was brought to the emergency department with rapid, shallow breat...
      • True or False: Sickle cells along with target cells, as shown in this image, confirm a diagnosis of sickle cell disease (HbSS).
      • A patient is diagnosed with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) based on clinical findings and laboratory results that include decreased plat...
      • The top image on the right represents a Wright-stained microscopic field from a peripheral blood smear. The bottom image represents a microscopic fiel...
      • The cells indicated by the arrows provide a clue to the diagnosis of chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (primary myelofibrosis). What is the identity of...
      • A 5-year-old child was brought to the emergency department with bloody diarrhea and severe abdominal pain. A complete blood count was performed, key r...
      • Ovalocytes/Elliptocytes
      • Stomatocytes
      • A 13-year-old healthy patient presents to the physician for a sports physical. A complete blood count (CBC) is ordered. The automated count triggers a...
    • Multiple Erythrocyte Abnormalities
      • Case Study
      • Case Study: Splenectomy Morphologies
      • Case Study: Poikilocytosis and Basophilic Stippling
      • This slide is from a 28-year-old patient who received a kidney transplant, which was preceded by a splenectomy six months prior to the kidney transpla...
      • The image on the right is a representative microscopic field from a patient with post-splenectomy syndrome. Identify each of the labeled cells in the ...
  • References
      • References

Additional Information

Level of Instruction: Intermediate
Intended Audience: Medical laboratory scientists and technicians seeking review, cross-training, or continuing education opportunities. It is also appropriate for medical laboratory science students, medical students, and pathology residents.
Author Information:
C. William Reiquam, MD (1923-2015) was a clinical professor of pathology at the School of Medicine, University of Colorado. One of his areas of expertise was hematology.
Until his recent passing, Elmer W. Koneman, MD was Professor Emeritus, Department of Pathology, University of Colorado School of Medicine. Dr. Koneman was a Board Certified Pathologist and former tenured professor. He was the author of numerous journal articles and books.
Reviewer Information: Laurie Bjerklie, MA, MLS(ASCP)CM is currently an Education Developer for MediaLab and LabCE. She earned a B.S. in Medical Laboratory Science from the University of North Dakota and an M.A. in Curriculum and Instruction from Saint Xavier University. She has over 15 years of experience in higher education and has held program director and faculty positions in both MLT and MLS programs.

How to Subscribe
MLS & MLT Comprehensive CE Package
Includes 180 CE courses, most popular
$109Add to cart
Pick Your Courses
Up to 8 CE hours
$55Add to cart
Individual course$25Add to cart
Need multiple seats for your university or lab? Get a quote
table acantocyte

table agglutination

table burr cells

table macrocytes

table microcytes

table target cells

table sickle cells

table spherocytes