Bone Marrow Aspiration: Normal Hematopoiesis and Basic Interpretive Procedures (Online CE Course)

(based on 298 customer ratings)

Author: Marybeth Helfrich, MT(ASCP)
Reviewer: Paul S. Fekete, MD, FCAP

This course provides a thorough review of cellular elements encountered in normal bone marrow. It also provides guidelines for preparation of smears, including an instructional video, and evaluation and reporting of bone marrows.

See all available courses »

Continuing Education Credits

P.A.C.E.® Contact Hours (acceptable for AMT, ASCP, and state recertification): 2 hour(s)
Course number 578-010-16, approved through 3/31/2018
Course number 20-547599, approved through 9/1/2018


  • Describe bone marrow sample collection, smear preparation and routine staining techniques.
  • Recognize and identify myeloid and erythroid precursors found in normal bone marrow aspirates.
  • Compare lymphocytes, hematogones and plasma cells.
  • Compare and contrast monocytes, monocyte precursors and macrophages.
  • Describe benign background cell types found in normal bone marrow.
  • Outline and explain standard procedures for reporting bone marrow differentials.

Customer Ratings

(based on 298 customer ratings)

Course Outline

Click on the links below to preview selected pages from this course.
  • Bone Marrow Aspirates
    • Sample Collection
      • Bone Marrow Collection: Patient Bedside
      • Bone Marrow Delivery
      • The role of the laboratory technologist in processing bone marrow aspirates can vary depending on laboratory and clinician protocols. Which of the fol...
    • Smear techniques
    • Routine Staining
      • Manual Staining of Bone Marrow Preparations
      • Manual Staining of Bone Marrow Preparations: Wright's and Wright-Giemsa Stain
      • Automated Stainers
      • Iron Staining
      • The same staining protocol can be used for bone marrow smears as is used for peripheral blood smears.
  • Normal Bone Marrow Morphology
      • Bone marrow Differentials
    • Myeloid Maturation Sequence
    • Erythroid Maturation Sequence
    • Monocytes / Macrophages
    • Lymphocytes / Hematogones / Plasmacells
      • Lymphocyte
      • Hematogone
      • Plasma Cell
      • What are the cells that are indicated by the red arrows in the image on the right?
    • Megakaryocytes
    • Other Constituents of Normal Bone Marrow
  • Bone Marrow Evaluation and Reporting
  • References

Additional Information

Level of Instruction: Intermediate to Advanced

Intended Audience: Clinical laboratory technologists, technicians, and pathologists. This course is also appropriate for clinical laboratory science students and pathology residents.
Author Information: Marybeth Helfrich, MT(ASCP) is currently a Laboratory Technologist Specialist for the Hematology/Oncology Laboratory at Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia. She received her BS, MT from Temple University in Philadelphia and has nearly 40 year experience in both adult and pediatric hematology and oncology settings. She is a regular presenter for ASCLS-PA, has been a presenter for ASCP (local and national), and the Texas Teleconference network. She is responsible for hematology morphology instruction and training for medical technologists and fellows. She is also a regular developer of morphology tutorials for in-house continuing education activities.
Reviewer Information: Paul S. Fekete, MD, FCAP is the President and CEO of MediaLab, Inc. He received his MD from Ohio State University and completed his clinical pathology residency at Emory University in Atlanta. He has served as an Assistant Professor of Pathology at Emory and as the Director of Laboratories for Gwinnett Medical Center in Lawrenceville, GA. He is currently Assistant Professor of Pathology, at the Augusta University University of Georgia Medical Partnership. Dr. Fekete is a member of Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society and a Fellow of the College of American Pathologists.
Course information: This course provides a thorough review of cellular elements encountered in normal bone marrow. It also provides guidelines for preparation of smears, including an instructional video, and evaluation and reporting of bone marrows.


These are the most common topics and keywords covered in Bone Marrow Aspiration: Normal Hematopoiesis and Basic Interpretive Procedures:

morphology coarser histiocytes hematopathologist sectioned rinsed osteoclasts pores usable lymphocytes hematology myeloid myelocytes monolayer cytopenias laboratory lymph normoblast aspirate readable coverslip intimidating dexterity evaluation histiocyte nuclear methods hemophagocytosis dozen diagnostic infrequently knotted wright condensation hypocellular basophilic sand erythroids blast-like differential cellular cytogenetics cytometry clinicians macrophages myeloblast manageable lymphoid numbers basophils pronormoblast fixative spicules peripheral blood smear aspirates counterpart hematopathologists leukemia matured transferred cells centrally-placed iron syringes touch-preparation red blood cells lymphoblasts hematogones decalcified lighten workspace t-cells golgi platelets band neutrophil midnight-blue shrink cellularity erythrocyte cytoplasm oncology t-prep thrombocytopenia compact hemoglobin anemias heparin clinician clinical settings lymphocyte plasma cells syringe pathologists indent monoblasts biopsy differentials condense gritty binucleate bony maturational perinuclear b-lymphocytes monocyte marrow body granulated toxic precursor clusters heart pediatric anticoagulated circulating professionals monocytes protocols stromal megakaryocytes normoblasts myeloblasts biopsies lymphoblast segmented neutrophils velvety-look non-nucleated immune appears rbcs megakaryocyte precursors lacy lineages metamyelocyte immature transformation promyelocyte wright-giemsa mounted nucleus pathology leukemic artifact noticeable coverslips micro-pipette methanol-based segmented neutrophil roll preference erythroid nucleolus macrophage disorders granules neutrophils bone marrow preparations tumor pipette assays clumpy eosinophils shade chromatin promyelocytes antigens polychromatophilic preservative-free myelocyte samples phagocytic bone marrows nucleoli diagnosis aspiration leukemias anticoagulants sharp indistinguishable needle cytoplasmic granulocyte platelet osteoblasts buffer rack specimens identification basophilia technologists blood nuclei anemia nrbcs vacuoles grains lineage
How to Subscribe
MLS & MLT Comprehensive CE Package
Includes 101 CE courses, most popular
$95 Add to cart
Pick Your Courses
Up to 8 CE hours
$50 Add to cart
Individual course$20 Add to cart

2jmml13 sml with arrows

band 2 sml

bm baso + poly sml with arrows 2

cellularity normal sml

progranulocyte sml updated 2

tprep sml LC updated

young megka 1 sml with arrow

plasma 2 sml