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Babesiosis: Congenital Infections

Congenital infections have only been reported in five infants. The mother may be asymptomatic but have a high titer. Symptoms in the five reported cases started 19-41 days after birth. Parasitemia ranges from 2-15%.
All five infants received exchange transfusions. Exchange transfusion reduces the level of parasitemia, hemolysis, and hypoxia. They also remove cytokines, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-1. Perfusion of organs is improved and hemodynamics are stabilized. Exchange transfusions also mediates acute respiratory failure.