Organisms Expected From Common Body Sites/Specimens, continued
- Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Intracellular gram-negative diplococci (GNDC)
- Yeast: Large ovals with budding forms and hyphae
- Gardnerella species: Small, gram-variable or gram-negative coccobacilli
- Enterics such as E. coli and Pseudomonas: Gram-negative rods (GNRs)
- Streptococcus species: Gram-positive cocci (GPC) in pairs and chains
- Staphylococcus species: GPC in clusters and tetrads
- Lactobacillus species: Gram-variable or gram-positive, pleomorphic rods or coccobacilli
- Normal genital flora includes GPC, GPRs, and GNRs.
- Normal urethral flora includes corynebacteria, COAG-negative staphylococci, and anaerobes.
- In women of reproductive age, normal flora (NF) of the genital tract includes Enterobacteriaceae, anaerobes, staphylococci, and streptococci.
- Lactobacilli are predominant in healthy vaginal secretions.
- In prepubescent and postmenopausal women, NF of the genital tract includes primarily staphylococci and corynebacteria.
- Intracellular GNDC are diagnostic for gonorrhea in urethral discharge and presumptive in vaginal discharge. Saprophytic GNDC exist in the female genital tract.
- Streptococcus agalactiae (group B beta-hemolytic streptococci) may be carried by many women and transmitted to the neonate.
- Staphylococcus: GPC in clusters and tetrads
- Streptococcus: GPC in pairs and chains
- Neisseria: GNDC
- Haemophilus: Pale pink gram-negative coccobacilli (GNCB)
- Enteric GNRs, such as E. coli
- Generally, only 1 morphotype is expected in sterile body sites.
- S. aureus is the most common pathogen recovered in septic arthritis.
- N. gonorrhoeae is the most frequently isolated organism in adults under the age of 30 with septic arthritis.
- H. influenzae is the most common pathogen in children less than two with infectious arthritis, followed by S. aureus.
- Common pathogens also include group A and B streptococci, pneumococci, and viridans streptococci, as well as anaerobes such as Bacteroides and Fusobacterium.