The basis of molecular testing lies in the genetic material of a cell. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells possess nucleic acid. The two types of nucleic acid include deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). The foundational building blocks of both DNA and RNA include nucleotide bases of purines and pyrimidines. The unique sequencing of these nucleotide bases found in each strand of DNA or RNA contribute significantly to the language of cells.
This cellular based language is responsible for many complex activities within the human body, including the synthesis of proteins.