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Follow-up Investigative Tests (Fetus)

If a mother has a clinically significant antibody, fetal blood for phenotyping can be obtained by several procedures, depending on gestational age and the antigen involved. These include

  • Amniotic fluid sampling*
  • Chorionic villus sampling*
  • Cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma*
  • Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling (PUBS) / cordocentesis**

*molecular genotyping
**serologic tests

As noted, typing the fetus is warranted when the father's blood type is unknown or the father tests as heterozygous positive.