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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Precision Medicine-Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer Development and Actionable Genes. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

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Ribosome mRNA translation

Translation

Now that the DNA code has been read to make mRNA, the mRNA needs to be deciphered to make protein in a process called translation. This type of translation is akin to translating languages. Both DNA and RNA are different codes made of nucleotides whereas protein is made of amino acids. In order for protein to be made from RNA, the language of nucleotides must be translated to the language of amino acids.
Translation is performed on a ribosome which is composed of rRNA and protein. During translation tRNA deciphers the code on the mRNA and transfers the appropriate amino acid onto the growing polypeptide chain (protein). Three nucleotides, called a codon, translate to one amino acid. Translation begins when a start codon with the sequence AUG is found, this begins the reading frame of the mRNA. This continues until a stop codon is reached. Stop codons have the sequence of UAG, UAA, or UGA are termed as such because there is no tRNA complementary to these sequences, therefore translation ends when one these sequences is encountered.
Image courtesy of Wikimedia