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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Drug Metabolism. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

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Diet

Countless chemicals are absorbed from our diet every day and many of these chemicals are as potent as drugs in terms of inhibiting and inducing CYP enzymes.
Grapefruit and other fruit juices, for example, have already been mentioned as being potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. Many food additives expose the consumer to compounds that induce CYP enzymes.
The process of barbecuing meats produces hydrocarbons that induce CYP1A2.
Cruciferous vegetables, such as cabbage, cauliflour, and brussels sprouts, induce CYP1A2. Further, eating vegetables increases the pH of urine. This is beneficial in maintaining a number of conjugated metabolites of aromatic amines.
Caffeine is metabolized by CYP1A2. It is an inhibitor of substrates cleared by CYP1A2.
An abrupt change in a person’s diet can significantly alter the clearance of drugs and lead to loss of efficacy or possible toxicity.