Specialists in cytogenetics detect chromosome abnormalities and genetic disorders. Cytogenetic counseling may only be performed by an individual licensed in the cytogenetics specialty at the director level.
Specialists in molecular pathology analyze DNA and RNA to find disease-related genotypes, mutations, and phenotypes in order to detect or predict disease and identify carriers. Techniques include immunohistochemistry, protein analysis, polymerase chain reaction(PCR), cell culture, expression profiling and microarrays. Clinical laboratory personnel who are licensed in the five basic clinical categories may perform testing considered to fall in the molecular pathology category for each related category. For example, a licensed tech in Microbiology can perform MRSA real time PCR testing. An additional license category of molecular pathology is not required.
Specialists in histocompatibility perform tests to determine tissue compatibility, prevent infections, and investigate and evaluate post-transplant problems. Techniques include blood typing, HLA typing, HLA antibody screening, disease markers, flow cytometry, crossmatching, HLA antibody identification, lymphocyte immunophenotyping, immunosuppressive drug assays, allogenic, isogeneic and autologous bone marrow processing and storage, mixed lymphocyte culture, stem cell culture, cell
mediated assays, and assays for the presence of cytokines. Clincal laboratory personnel licensed in serology/immunology and immunohematology can perform all testing without an additional license category.
Specialists in andrology and embryology examine gametes and embryos, including production, maturation, morphology, number, motility and function to address issues of fertility and infertility.