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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Preliminary Identification of the Primary Select Agents of Bioterrorism. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

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    VirusMost Likely Means of Dissemination Primary Route of EntryGeneral Signs and SymptomsLaboratory Testing
    Image courtesy of CDC
    • As an aerosol
      • Inhalation
      • High fever with extreme lethargy
      • Severe headache, backache, and abdominal pain
      • Rash that starts as red bumps but quickly develops into small, itchy blisters
      • Consult local APHL prior to sample collection
      • Shell vial and DFA Monoclonal IFA
      • Molecular tests
      Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, and Argentine):
      • Solid
      • Liquid
      • Aerosol
      • Absorption
      • Inhalation
      • Ingestion
      Vary by type of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), but initial signs and symptoms often include:
      • Marked fever
      • Fatigue
      • Dizziness
      • Muscle aches, loss of strength, and exhaustion
      • Severe cases of VHF often show signs of bleeding under the skin, within internal organs, or from body orifices like the mouth, eyes, or ears
      • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
      • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
      • Viral culture