The determination of TPOAb levels is considered as a sensitive test for detecting autoimmune thyroid disease. The highest TPOAb levels are observed in patients suffering from Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In this disease, the prevalence of TPOAb is about 90% of cases confirming the autoimmune origin of the disease. These autoantibodies also frequently occur (60–80%) in the course of Graves’ disease. In addition to autoimmune thyroid disease states, detectable concentrations of TPOAb are often detected in the sera of type I insulin-dependent diabetics.
The analysis of TPOAb is most commonly achieved through immunoassay methods employing the principles of ELISA and chemiluminescence.