The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Adverse Effects of Fresh Frozen Plasma Transfusion: TRALI, TACO and Allergic Reactions. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

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Definitions of Terms Used in this Course

Active reporting: Active reporting includes strategies to detect unreported cases in an effort to produce a more accurate measure of a given data set. Strategies include identifying one or more individuals with direct responsibility for collecting data, making follow-up phone calls or e-mails to collect data, providing positive incentives for reporting, etc.
Albumin: A derivative that is made from human plasma. It is composed of 96% albumin and 4% globulin and heated for 10 hours at 60° C to reduce the risk of the transmission of infectious diseases. Albumin is indicated for volume replacement and to restore albumin levels in patients with low albumin levels. Albumin does not contain coagulation factors.
Angioedema: A type of swelling that involves layers deeper than the skin such as the mucosa and sub-mucosal layers. It is often associated with hives, due to the production of histamine in an allergic reaction.
Bronchospasm: Rapid constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles resulting in narrowing and obstruction of the airway.
Evidence-Based: Standards of practice that are based on research evidence.
FiO2: The symbol for the fraction of inspired oxygen; the PaO2/FiO2 ratio is a measure of lung function and useful in the diagnosis of acute respiratory distress (ARD).
Hydrostatic edema: Edema caused by an elevated capillary hydrostatic pressure resulting in the accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces.
INR – A standardized system for reporting prothrombin time (PT) test results established by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis. PT test results vary depending upon the source of the thromboplastin used in the test. Calculation of the INR is designed to control for these differences. The normal non-therapeutic INR is 0.9 to 1.1. The number is a ratio and has no units.
Normal saline: 0.9% USP Sodium Chloride for Injection; a crystalloid solution used for volume replacement; the only solution that can be administered/mixed with blood components.
PaO2: The symbol for the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood; a measurement of the amount of O2 delivered to the blood from the lungs.
Passive reporting: Passive reporting relies on the current reporting systems to collect data. For example, a large insurance company records the number of TRALI cases in the state from data reported by hospitals statewide. Generally passive reporting underestimates incidence.
Permeability edema: Edema associated with leakage of fluids into intravascular spaces resulting from physical damage to the pores in the microvascular membranes such that the membrane is not capable of restricting the movement of macromolecules from the vasculature into the interstitial spaces.
Plasma Protein Fraction (PPF): A similar product to Albumin except that it is somewhat less purified. PPF contains 83% albumin and 17% globulin. Indications for use are similar to Albumin and like Albumin, PPF does not contain coagulation factors.
Pruritis: Itchy skin
SpO2: The symbol for the peripheral capillary blood oxygen saturation; measured by pulse oximeter; the ratio of oxyhemoglobin to total hemoglobin.
Urticaria: Hives; a common allergic reaction to transfusion.
Warfarin: Coumadin® (warfarin sodium) is a prescription medication used to prevent or treat blood clots. Common indications are lowering the risk of a subsequent heart attack in a patient with a history of a previous heart attack and reducing the risk of clot formation in patients with atrial fibrillation (rapid/irregular heart rate).