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Table II: Circulating Levels of Other Potential Biomarkers in Preeclampsia (PE).

The biomarkers listed in the table below are being studied as potential biomarkers for PE. However, in all cases, more clinical studies are needed to determine their suitability as biomarkers for PE.

BiomarkerCharacteristics and FunctionCirculating Levels (blood,serum/plasma) in PEComments: Clinical Significance/Use
P-selectinA cell surface molecule expressed by platelets and endothelial cells. Plays roles in inflammation and coagulation.IncreasedPE is associated with extensive platelet activation. Higher levels of P-Selectin are seen in serum from PE patients.
ADAM-12A membrane-bound protease. May be associated with fertilization.DecreasedDecreased serum levels in PE.
PP-13A protein found in the placenta. May be involved in vascular remodeling and placental implantation.DecreasedIn PE, levels are low in first trimester but normal later. May be suitable marker for preterm PE but not suitable for severe or mild PE.
PAPP-AA glycoprotein released by placenta and uterus. May play a role in controlling placental formation and implantation by binding to IGF, which may lead to abnormal fetus development.DecreasedWomen with PE have lower serum levels during 1st and 2nd trimesters.
Insulin resistance:

SHBC and adiponectin

Ineffective utilization of insulin leading to hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a risk factor for PE. SHBC is a glycoprotein inversely related to insulin levels. Adiponectin is a cytokine involved in carbohydrate and fat metabolism.Decreased SHBC
Decreased adiponectin
Decreased circulating levels of SHBC and adiponectin may suggest insulin resistance and may play a role in development of PE.
Inhibin-A and Activin-AGlycoproteins involved in FSH secretions by the anterior pituitary. In pregnancy, both compounds are released by fetus and placenta.IncreasedBoth compounds have increased circulating levels in women with severe PE.
LeptinA peptide hormone that can be produced by the placenta. Called the anti-obesity hormone. Plays a role in controlling glucose metabolism and increasing insulin sensitivity.IncreasedCirculating levels tend to increase in complicated pregnancies including PE.