The factors listed in the table below are potential biomarkers for PE. However, in all cases, further studies are needed.
|Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)||A pro-angiogenic factor that creates new blood vessels during embryonic development.||Increased, decreased, or normal|
- Studies tend to be mixed on the levels during PE.
- Recent studies may support elevated levels in PE.
|Placental Growth Factor (PlGF)||A pro-angiogenic factor that acts as a vasodilator of uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy||Decreased|
- Levels are significantly lower in mild and severe PE.
|Soluble fms-like Tyrosine Kinase 1 Receptor (sFlt-1)||An anti-angiogenic factor that disables other proteins involved in blood vessel growth||Increased|
|Soluble Endoglin (sEng)||An anti-angiogenic factor that modulates growth by binding to TGF-beta.||Increased|
- Significantly elevated levels in PE.
|sFlt-1/PlGF Ratio||The ratio may be useful to assess PE as well as time to delivery.||Increased|
- Ratio may be higher in PE.
- Higher ratios may also suggest reduced time to deliver.