Over many decades, various management strategies have been developed to improve organizational performance by improving the processes through which they carry out their day-to-day work. In recent years, the companion methodologies of Lean and Six Sigma have emerged as effective strategies which aim to improve processes by application of a coordinated set of principles, practices, and analysis tools. The main focus areas of Lean and Six Sigma methodologies are improved process efficiency and effectiveness, while achieving a simultaneous reduction in both waste and errors. These outcomes ultimately serve to enhance both financial performance and patient safety goals. Lean and Six Sigma have evolved from their original manufacturing applications for use in many industries, including healthcare.