The page below is a sample from the LabCE course The Toxicology Laboratory's Role in Pain Management. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

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Opiate Abuse

Although opiates are prescribed for pain they are also used illicitly. Opiates can cause euphoria. This trait means that opiates have value on the street. Prescription opiate abuse is a tremendous problem in the United States and other countries. Abuse of non-prescription opiates centers around the use of heroin. Heroin is simply morphine with two additional acetyl-groups. Heroin is a very potent opiate that is taken intravenously and causes intense euphoria and narcosis.
When heroin is metabolized in the body it will initially lose one acetyl group. The resulting compound is 6-acetyl-morphine (abbreviated 6-AM). The finding of 6-AM is conclusive for heroin use. However 6-AM is rapidly cleared so it is often detected only in those who have used heroin in the last few hours.
Immunoassays for codeine, morphine, and 6-acetyl-morphine are commonly used in acute care settings, emergency settings, and pain management settings.