The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Emerging Cardiovascular Risk Markers. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

Learn more about Emerging Cardiovascular Risk Markers (online CE course) »
How to Subscribe
MLS & MLT Comprehensive CE Package
Includes 97 CE courses, most popular
$95 Add to cart
Pick Your Courses
Up to 8 CE hours
$50 Add to cart
Individual course$20 Add to cart


Atherosclerosis. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health. Available at
Accessed February 8, 2016.

Daniels LB, Barrett-Connor E, Sarno M, Laughlin GA,Bettencourt R, Wolfert RL. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) independently predicts incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in an apparently healthy older population: The Rancho Bernardo study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51:913-919.

Executive Summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001; 285:2486-2497.

Frostegard, J, Wu R, Lemne C, Thulin T, Witztum JL and de Faire U. Circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein is increased in hypertension, Clin Sci 2003; 105, 615.
Garza CA, Montoir VM, McConnell JP, et al. Association between lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82(2):159-165.

Interpretive Handbook, (MC0440rev0407) Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN; 2007.

Maksimowicz-McKinnon K, Bhatt DL, Calabrese LH: Recent advances in vascular inflammation: C-reactive protein and other inflammatory biomarkers. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2004;16:18-24.

Mora S, Szklo M, Otvos JD, et al. LDL particle subclasses, LDL particle size, and carotid atherosclerosis in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2007;192:211-217.

NACB Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines. Emerging biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and stroke. NationalAcademy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines. 2006.

PLACtest animation, diaDexus. Accessed February 8, 2016.

Remaley AT, Rifai N, Warnick GR. Lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and other cardiovascular risk factors. In: Burtis CA, Bruns DE. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders: 2015; chap. 23.

Ridker PM, Rifai N, Rose L, et al. Comparison of C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the prediction of first cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1557-1565.

Sniderman AD. Differential response of cholesterol and particle measures of atherogenic lipoproteins to LDL-lowering therapy: Implications for clinical practice. J Clin Lipidol 2008;2:36-42.

Tsimikas, S, Brilakis ES, Miller ER, et al. Oxidized phospholipids, Lp(a) lipoprotein, and coronary artery disease, N Engl J Med: 2005;353:46.

Tsimikas S, Bergmark C, Beyer RW, et al. Temporal increases in plasma markers of oxidized low-density lipoprotein strongly reflect the presence of acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003; 41: 360.

Tsimikas, S, Lau HK, Han KR, et al. Percutaneous coronary intervention results in acute increases in oxidized phospholipids and lipoprotein(a): Short-term and long-term immunologic responses to oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Circulation. 2004;109, 3164.

Tsimikas S, Witztum JL, Miller ER, Sasiela WJ, et al. High-dose atorvastatin reduces total plasma levels of oxidized phospholipids and immune complexes present on apolipoprotein B-100 in patients with acute coronary syndromes in the MIRACL trial, Circulation: 2004;110, 1406.

Walldius G, Jungner I, Holme I, et al. High apolipoprotein B, low apolipoprotein A-I, and improvement in the prediction of fatal myocardial infarction (AMORIS study): a prospective study. Lancet. 2001;358:2026-2033.

Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet. 2004;364:937-952.
Within-Person Variability in High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Julie K. Bower et al. Jama, Research Letters, Oct 22, 2012, Vol 172, No. 19.