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Organisms Expected From Common Body Sites/Specimens, continued

Body Site/SpecimenOrganism(s) Commonly ExpectedComments
Respiratory
  • Streptococcus: Gram-positive cocci (GPC) in pairs and chains; S. pneumoniae in lancet-shaped pairs
  • Staphylococcus: GPC in tetrads and clusters
  • Moraxella: Gram-negative diplococci (GNDC)
  • Haemophilus: Gram-negative coccobacilli (GNCB)
  • Pseudomonas and enterics, such as E. coli: Gram-negative rods (GNRs)
  • Lactobacillus and diptheroids: Gram-positive rods (GPRs)
  • Yeast: Observed budding and/or with hyphae
  • Normal oral flora includes GPC, GPRs, GNDC, and GNCB, and GNRs.
  • Numerous organisms can be pathogenic to the upper or lower respiratory tract.
  • Hospital acquired pneumonia is often caused by GNRs.
Urine
  • Pseudomonas and enterics, such as E. coli: GNRs
  • Streptococci and enterococci: GPC in pairs and long chains
  • Staphylococci: GPC in tetrads and clusters
  • Yeast: Observed budding and with hyphae
  • Urine is typically sterile, but may be contaminated during noninvasive collection methods.
  • E. coli is the most common cause of uncomplicated community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs).
  • Frequently isolated pathogens include members of the Enterobacteriaceae (GNRs), and GPC such as Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus species.
  • Recurrent UTIs often involve species of Proteus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Klebsiella (all GNRs).
Wound/Abscess
  • Staphylococci: GPC in tetrads and clusters
  • Streptococci and enterococci: GPC in pairs and long chains
  • Pseudomonas and enterics, such as E. coli: GNRs
  • Bacteroides: GNRs
  • Clostridium and diptheroids: GPRs
  • More than 1 morphotype may be present.