A gene is a hereditary unit or sequence of the nucleotide bases ACGT, occupying a fixed location or locus on the chromosome. It is these genes that carry all the information for life processes.
DNA is rewritten into 3 types of RNA, each with a specific task:
- Messenger RNA (mRNA)carries the protein message to the cytoplasm.
- Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the location of protein synthesis.
- Transfer RNA (tRNA) is responsible for amino acid transport.
Each 3-base nucleotide sequence (codon) codes for a specific amino acid. Some amino acids have more than one codon to direct their placement; this is termed degeneracy.