Infection is obviously a very serious indication, and effective antibiotic levels must be achieved as soon as possible. However, many antibiotics also have nephrotoxic or ototoxic effects; the concentrations of these antibiotics need to be monitored. Having serum concentrations too low or too high are both situations which must be avoided.
Examples of antibiotics that are monitored by TDM include:
Antibiotics such as ampicillin that are readily cleared and have a wide therapeutic window are not usually monitored by TDM.