Infection is obviously a very serious indication, and effective antibiotic levels must be achieved as soon as possible. However, many antibiotics also have nephrotoxic or ototoxic effects; the concentrations of these antibiotics need to be monitored. Serum concentrations that are too low or too high must be avoided.
Examples of antibiotics that are monitored by TDM include:
Antibiotics such as ampicillin that are readily cleared and have a wide therapeutic window are not usually monitored by TDM.