Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus. There are four distinct serotypes of parainfluenza that belong to the Paramyxovirus family. Anti-parainfluenza blends of mouse IgG monoclonal antibodies, clones 251-12A, 354-8B, 343-5G, 231-9F, 233-4D, and 341-7H are specific for FO/F1, NP, and HN proteins and react with all known serotypes of parainfluenza I, II, and III. Proteolytic enzyme pepsin or heat retrieval using citrate buffer performed equally well. (Ref5)
In the top image, a cytoplasmic granular staining pattern of HPIV is demonstrated in a section of lung using mouse monoclonal antibody clone, alkaline phosphatase (AP) detection system, and fast red (FR) chromogen. The lower image also demonstrates HPIV in a section of lung using mouse monoclonal antibody clone, but utilizes a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) detection system and DAB chromogen.