Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are the most common DNA viruses that are seen in humans, causing blistering infections of the skin, mucous membranes, and esophagus. Both HSV and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections can be associated with severe pneumonitis, hepatitis, and disseminated infection. HSV can also infect the brain, causing encephalitis. Stratified squamous epithelia are the most commonly affected tissues, exhibiting a variety of changes that can include hyperplasia, intercellular edema, ballooning degeneration of the basal layer, and vesicle formation. Infection can be primary or develop as a result of latent virus in the nerve roots (tropism for nerve) and ganglia of mucosal or cutaneous surfaces. Cytoplasmic and nuclear staining patterns of HSV can be seen.
Cocktails of HSV I & II antibodies, as well as individual HSV type I or type II rabbit polyclonal antibodies, can be used to demonstrate HSV in human tissue sections. No heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) or enzyme-induced epitope retrieval (EIER) pretreatment is required for the demonstration of HSV in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. The images demonstrate a herpetic ulceration of the esophagus showing a classic "punched out" pattern of the epithelial cells. HSV I & II rabbit polyclonal antibody cocktail of HSV I & II is demonstrated with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled detection system and DAB chromogen.