|Specify value||The critical starting point. Define value from the customer's perspective and express value in terms of a specific product.|
|Map the value stream||Map all of the steps that bring a product or service to the customer. Include: |
- Value-added-- Activities that are of value to the customer.
- Value enabling-- Not valued by the customer, but required for the process.
- Non-value added-- Create no value and are avoidable.
|Establish flow||The continuum of product movement, services, and information from beginning to end. Eliminate batch testing.|
|Implement pull||Nothing is done by the upstream process until the downstream customer signals the need. Eliminate unnecessary inventory buildup.|
|Pursue perfection||Perfection is the complete elimination of waste so that all activities create value for the customer. This is a continual (never-ending) process.|
Reference: Womack JP., Jones, DT. Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation, Revised and Updated
. New York: Simon & Schuster; 2003.