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Histology of the Nervous System: Neurons

Neurons are the functional cell units of the nervous system. Each neuron consists of:

  • A cell body (contains a nucleus and various cell organelles)
  • Cell processes
    • Axons
    • Dendrites
Axons are also known as nerve fibers. These long processes serve as information carriers for the neuron and are often insulated in a sheath of white fatty substance called myelin.
Dendrites are short, branched-like processes that serve as information input sites for the neuron. Dendrites have NO myelin sheath.