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Acids, Bases, pH, and Buffers

Special staining protocols are often dependent on the use of acids, bases, and buffers for favorable staining outcomes.

The pH of a staining solution is a measure of its acidity or alkalinity; it reflects the balance of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxyl ions (OH).

On a pH scale of 1.0 to 14:

    Buffers are substances that are often added to staining solutions to prevent fluctuations in pH.