1. Forman, J. P. et al. (Hypertension 2008;52:828-832) found that 25(OH)D levels of 6-21 ng/ml (some deficient and some insufficient) may have a small (1.5 fold) increased risk of hypertension. However, the confidence interval came very close to a relative risk of 1.0, so the effect is marginal at best.
2.Wang TJ, et al. (Circulation 2008;117:503–11) found that 25(OH)D levels of 10-15 ng/ml had a small (1.5 fold) increased risk of any cardiovascular disease, although again the confidence interval approach 1.0. Interestingly, true deficiency (25(OH)D <10 ng/ml) seemed to have a slightly higher incidence of cardiovascular disease although, in this case, the lower limit of the confidence interval was actually 1.0 (no increase in risk).
3. In a very important metaanalysis that evaluated many recent studies,Elamin,MBet al.(J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:1931-1942) clearly demonstrated the following:
A. Mortality Pooled Estimate – NO EFFECT OF LOW 25(OH)D
B. Myocardial Infarction Pooled Estimate – NO EFFECT OF LOW 25(OH)D
C. Stroke Pooled Estimate – NO EFFECT OF LOW 25(OH)D
Therefore, this is little evidence that vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency has dramatic effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease.