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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Rh-Negative Female with Anti-D at Delivery: A Case Study (retired 6/11/2018). Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

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Further Reading

The following published literature and online resources, while useful, should not be used as a substitute for technical and clinical judgment. Medical and technical information becomes obsolete quickly and current sources relevant to the user's location should always be consulted.

References indicated by * provide a broad overview of HDFN and are highly recommended.

Literature resources 

Bowman J. Thirty-five years of Rh prophylaxis. Transfusion 2003 Dec;43(12):1661-6.

* Eder AF. Update on HDFN: new information on long-standing controversies. Immunohematology 2006;22(4):188–195. (scroll to article)

Flegel WA. Molecular genetics of RH and its clinical application. Transfus Clin Biol. 2006 Mar-Apr;13(1-2):4-12.

Kennedy MS, McNanie J, Waheed A. Detection of anti-D following antepartum injections of Rh immune globulin. Immunohematology 1998;14(4):138-40.

Koelewijn JM, de Haas M, Vrijkotte TG, van der Schoot CE, Bonsel GJ. Risk factors for RhD immunisation despite antenatal and postnatal anti-D prophylaxis. BJOG. 2009 Sep;116 (10): 1307-14. Epub 2009 Jun 17.

* Kumar S, Regan F. Management of pregnancies with RhD alloimmunisation. BMJ. 2005 May 28;330(7502):1255-8. (UK perspective but much valuable information relevant to all)

* Murray NA, Roberts IAG. Haemolytic disease of the newborn. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2007 Mar; 92(2): F83–F88.

Oepkes D, Seaward PG, Vandenbussche FP, Windrim R, Kingdom J, Beyene J, Kanhai HH, Ohlsson A, Ryan G; DIAMOND Study Group. Doppler ultrasonography versus amniocentesis to predict fetal anemia. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jul 13;355(2):156-64.

Ramsey G. Inaccurate doses of Rh immune globulin after Rh-incompatible fetomaternal hemorrhage: survey of laboratory practice. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2009 Mar; 133(3):465-9.

Sandler SG. Effectiveness of the RhIg dose calculator. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2010 Jul;134(7): 967-8.

Shulman IA, Calderon C, Nelson JM, Nakayama R. The routine use of Rh-negative reagent red cells for the identification of anti-D and the detection of non-D red cell antibodies. Transfusion 1994 Aug;34(8):666-70.

Westhoff CM, Sloan SR. Molecular genotyping in transfusion medicine. Clin Chem 2008;54(12): 1948-50.

Additional online resources

Paxton A. Bringing new rigor to RhIg calculations. CAP TODAY. May 2008. Accessed February 12, 2016.

*Wagle S, Deshpande PG. Hemolytic disease of the newborn. eMedicine / WebMD. Updated January 2, 2016. Accessed February 12, 2016.