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Clinical Relevance of D Phenotypes

Clinically relevant information on D phenotypes can be summarized as follows:

D phenotype

D antigen
expression

Rh(D) typing

Produce
anti-D
RBC
to transfuse
RhIg
recommended**
D+ normal direct agglutination

no

D+ or D–

no

Weak D normal but weak IAT no D+ or D– no
Partial D altered direct agglutination* & IAT yes D– yes
Partial weak D altered & variable direct agglutination* & IAT yes D– yes
D none IAT yes D– yes

* Depending on anti-D reagent used
** USA, UK and parts of Canada