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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course The Urine Microscopic: Microscopic Analysis of Urine Sediment. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

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Table: Normal Crystals

The table below summarizes crystals that may be observed in normal urine sediment.
Urine pH = Acidic
Amorphous urates
Dark or yellow-red granules
Calcium oxalate
Envelope (dihydrate form)
Oval, dumbbell (monohydrate form)
Calcium oxalate crystals can be found in both normal and abnormal urine, and that they can be found in a range of urine pH from acidic to neutral.
Uric acid
Various shapes-- rhombus, hexagonal plates, rosettes, rectangles, irregular shapes
Colorless to yellow or brown
Urine pH = Alkaline
Ammonium biurate
Round with thorny projections
Dark yellow to brown
Amorphous phosphate
Amorphous granules
Calcium phosphate
Flat rectangles, prisms, rosettes
Triple phosphate
Four to six-sided prisms resembling coffin lids