With a pH 8.0-9.0 used for protein electrophoresis, proteins take on a negative charge, that is a negative ion cloud forms. As the negative ion cloud migrates to the anode, the proteins are pulled to the anode. Several gels used routinely for protein electrophoresis attract positive ions from the buffer and form a positive ion cloud. This ion cloud moves in the opposite direction to the cathode. This phenomenon is called electroendosmosis or endosmosis.
The tension created by these oppositely moving ion clouds can affect the movement of sample macromolecules. The migration of some proteins can be slowed, some proteins can become immobile, and other proteins are pushed toward the cathode.
Many protein electrophoresis methods take advantage of this tension and use it to achieve better separation of protein bands. The gamma globulin band in serum, urine, and other body fluids will separate more sharply by being pushed to the cathode and will appear behind the point of sample application.