In addition to the specimen sample, support medium and buffer for electrophoresis, a power supply, positive and negative electrodes, chamber, and identification or detection method are needed.
The power supply is a source of constant voltage or current that provides energy to the electrodes. This drives the movement of the ions in the medium and results in the movement and separation of the molecules or solutes in the specimen. Control of current or voltage comes with the power source in order to make adjustments.
The chamber is divided into two sections or has two reservoirs for the buffer and one electrode is placed in each. The support medium is laid over the chamber in such a way that it connects the two reservoirs. A lid or cover is placed over the chamber during electrophoresis.