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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course The Story of Phlebotomy: A Historical Perspective. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

Learn more about The Story of Phlebotomy: A Historical Perspective (online CE course)

1.Berger, Darlene, A Brief History of Medical Diagnosis and the Birth of the Clinical Laboratory Part 1– Ancient Times Through the 19th Century. MLO 31(7):26 (1999).
2.Berger, Darlene, A Brief History of Medical Diagnosis and the Birth of the Clinical Laboratory Part 2– Laboratory Science and Professional Certification in the 20th Century. MLO 31(8):32 (1999).
3.Burke, Erwin L., Care and Feeding of Veins. NEJM 282(23):1326 (1970).
4.Bush, Valerie and Richmond Cohen, The Evolution of Evacuated Blood Collection Tubes. Lab Med 34(4):304 (2003).
5.CLSI Collection of Diagnostic Venous Blood Specimens. 7th ed. CLSI Standard GP41. Wayne, PA Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, 2017.
Davis, Audrey and Toby Appel, Bloodletting Instruments in the National Museumof History and Technology. No. 41 (1979), (accessed 15 APR 2020).
Greenstone, Gerry, The History of Bloodletting. BCMT 52(1):12 (2010).
8 Judd, C.C.W. and C.E. Simon, The Vacuum Tube of Keidel as Applied to Blood Culture Work. JAMA 64(10): 222 (1915).
9 Kumar, V. S. and Molly Webster, Push-button Phlebotomy. Clin. Chem. 62(5):785 (2016).
10Majno, G. The Healing Hand: Man and Wound in the Ancient World. Cambridge:Harvard Univ. Press (1975).
Parapia, Liakat, A History of Bloodletting by Phlebotomy. Brit Jour. Hemat. 143:490 (2008).
12Pendergraph, G. E., Handbook of Phlebotomy and Patient Service Techniques, 4th Ed. Williams and Wilkinson, Baltimore, MD (1993
13Rupp, Mark E., R. Jennifer Cavalieri, Cola Marolf, and Elizabeth Lydon. Reduction in Blood Culture Contamination Through Use of Initial Specimen Diversion Device. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2017 cix304.
Tools, Technique, and Science. Technical Bulletin, Vein Access Technologies, (2013).
15 Vadakan,V.V., The Asphyxiating and Exsanguinating Death of President George Washington. The Permanente Jour. 8(2):76 (2004).