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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Histology Special Stains: Nervous Tissue. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

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Histology of the Nervous System: Neurons

Neurons are the functional cell units of the nervous system. Each neuron consists of:

  • A cell body (contains a nucleus and various cell organelles)
  • One or more cell processes
    • Axons
    • Dendrites
Axons are also known as nerve fibers. These long processes serve as information carriers for the neuron by transmitting impulses away from the cell body. Nerve fibers are often insulated in a sheath of white fatty substance called myelin.
Dendrites are short, branched-like processes that serve as information input sites for the neuron. Dendrites have NO myelin sheath.