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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Hallmarks and Signaling of Cancer Cells. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

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The Cell Cycle

The cell cycle is made up of two main phases: Interphase and Mitosis. The interphase consists of Gap 1 (G1), synthesis (S), Gap (G2), and Mitosis as the M phase (Figure 1 below). Collectively,the three phases of Interphase prepare the cell for Mitosis.
During the G1, the cell gets ready for the S phase by making sufficient amounts of proteins, ribosomes being the most predominant. In fact, a sufficient supply of ribosomes during G1 is a pre-requisite for the cell's readiness to exit G1 and enter the S phase.
During the S phase, the cell duplicates its DNA to get ready for Mitosis. At the end of the S phase, the cell's 23 pairs of chromosomes become 46 pairs. Besides DNA, histone proteins are also copied. Histone proteins are DNA "organizers." Specifically, duplicated DNA loops around histones to form nucleosomes. Nucleosomes further coil to form chromatin fibers. Chromatin fibers are condensed into chromsomes.
During the G2 phase, the cell's organelles are duplicated.
During Mitosis (M), a mother cell divides into two daughter cells with the exact "carbon copies" of all the genetic materials from the mother cell.