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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Hallmarks and Signaling of Cancer Cells. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

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Cell Cycle Progression and Checkpoints

Growth factors are required for the Gap1 (G1) phase to progress to the S phase. Growth factors stimulate the synthesis of a cell cycle protein called cyclin D. In turn, cyclin D forms a complex with cyclin-dependent protein kinase 4 (CDK4) called the Cyclin D­­-CDK4 complex.
Cells in G1 phase do not automatically progress to the S phase. A checkpoint protein called retinoblastoma (Rb or pRb) functions as a negative regulator of cell cycle.
To ensure cell cycle progression, Rb ought to be inactivated. Rb inactivation is carried out by the cyclin D-CDK4 complex.